Clematis (Jackmanii Superba) - Mariefred, Sweden
Clematis, also called the aristocrat under climbers - due to its rich hues, was called 'pepper vine' by early pioneers of the American Old West as they used the seeds and the acrid leaves of the plant as a pepper substitute. However, the essential oils and compounds of the entire genus are extremely irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. Unlike black pepper, they can cause internal bleeding of the digestive tract if digested in large amounts. Despite its toxicity, Native Americans used very small amounts of clematis as an effective treatment for migraine headaches and nervous disorders.